Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), or CaHPO4·2H2O, is a leavening salt that transfers into an acid when it contacts water and heat. This allows its reaction with bases to produce gas in batter-based products, such as cakes or muffins.
One of the characteristics of DCPD is its slow rate of reaction. It reacts with baking soda during the late stages of baking. That’s why it’s known as a heat-triggered leavening acid.
DCPD is a type of orthophosphate, a single phosphate group with two calcium atoms and two water molecules. This compound is a very stable acid salt which can be stored under suboptimal conditions without adverse effects on its leavening performance.
Incorporation into aqueous systems and hydration is the key to DCPD functionality in bakery batters. Especially, when heated to temperatures above 150°F (65°C). With these two conditions met, DCPD breaks down into phosphorus-containing acids and tricalcium phosphate. The acids formed then react with the bicarbonate and produce CO2.
And of course, you can never miss vitamin. Vitamin, any of several organic substances that are necessary in small quantities for normal health and growth in higher forms of animal life. Vitamins are distinct in several ways from other biologically important compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Although these latter substances also are indispensable for proper bodily functions, almost all of them can be synthesized by animals in adequate quantities. Vitamins, on the other hand, generally cannot be synthesized in amounts sufficient to meet bodily needs and therefore must be obtained from the diet or from some synthetic source. For this reason, vitamins are called essential nutrients. Vitamins also differ from the other biological compounds in that relatively small quantities are needed to complete their functions. In general these functions are of a catalytic or regulatory nature, facilitating or controlling vital chemical reactions in the body's cells. If a vitamin is absent from the diet or is not properly absorbed by the body, a specific deficiency disease may develop.
Vitamins are usually designated by selected letters of the alphabet, as in vitamin D or vitamin C, though they are also designated by chemical names, such as niacin and folic acid. Biochemists traditionally separate them into two groups, the water-soluble vitamins and the fat-soluble vitamins. The common and chemical names of vitamins of both groups, along with their main biological functions and deficiency symptoms, are listed in the table.